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Statistical Analysis!! November 24, 2008

Filed under: Uncategorized — ratssssss @ 10:01 pm

Below are some of the results of the repeated-measures analyses we did on the OTT% averages for each rat (and also for Ella during part II):

ELLA: Part I

Descriptive Statistics

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

Std. Deviation

 

 

N

 

 

NoLemon

 

 

13.5433

 

 

.57143

 

 

3

 

 

Lemon

 

 

15.2633

 

 

2.26014

 

 

3

 

 

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

 

 

Measure:OTTaverage

Transformed Variable:Average

 

 

           

Source

 

 

Type III Sum of Squares

 

 

df

 

 

Mean Square

 

 

F

 

 

Sig.

 

 

Partial Eta Squared

 

 

Noncent. Parameter

 

 

Observed Powera

 

 

Intercept

 

 

1244.736

 

 

1

 

 

1244.736

 

 

341.144

 

 

.003

 

 

.994

 

 

341.144

 

 

1.000

 

 

Error

 

 

7.297

 

 

2

 

 

3.649

 

 

         

a. Computed using alpha = .05

 

 

           

 

MILLIE: Part I

Descriptive Statistics

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

Std. Deviation

 

 

N

 

 

NoLemon

 

 

11.4300

 

 

.34511

 

 

3

 

 

Lemon

 

 

14.5867

 

 

1.56180

 

 

3

 

 

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

 

 

Measure:OTTaverage

Transformed Variable:Average

 

 

           

Source

 

 

Type III Sum of Squares

 

 

df

 

 

Mean Square

 

 

F

 

 

Sig.

 

 

Partial Eta Squared

 

 

Noncent. Parameter

 

 

Observed Powera

 

 

Intercept

 

 

1015.300

 

 

1

 

 

1015.300

 

 

805.496

 

 

.001

 

 

.998

 

 

805.496

 

 

1.000

 

 

Error

 

 

2.521

 

 

2

 

 

1.260

 

 

         

a. Computed using alpha = .05

 

 

           

 

ELLA: Part II

Descriptive Statistics

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

Std. Deviation

 

 

N

 

 

NoLemon

 

 

11.0450

 

 

.17678

 

 

2

 

 

Lemon

 

 

15.7250

 

 

.31820

 

 

2

 

 

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

 

 

Measure:OTTaverage

Transformed Variable:Average

 

 

           

Source

 

 

Type III Sum of Squares

 

 

df

 

 

Mean Square

 

 

F

 

 

Sig.

 

 

Partial Eta Squared

 

 

Noncent. Parameter

 

 

Observed Powera

 

 

Intercept

 

 

716.633

 

 

1

 

 

716.633

 

 

71663.290

 

 

.002

 

 

1.000

 

 

71663.290

 

 

1.000

 

 

Error

 

 

.010

 

 

1

 

 

.010

 

 

         

a. Computed using alpha = .05

 

 

           
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Experiment Part II (Phase 4) November 18, 2008

Filed under: Experiment — ratssssss @ 6:06 am

We have decided to continue our experiment to try and strengthen our reliability. Millie has already gone home so Ella will be our only participant. We will be doing 4 day phases. The first 2 days the lemon is present and the last 2 days the lemon is absent. This pattern will continue through two phases for a total of 8 days. Ella will continue to perform the same behavior (sitting in the hoop for 1 second and being reinforced with food). Ella’s percentage of on task time will continue to be monitored. We are hoping to repeat the results from the first three phases of the experiment. During part I Ella’s on task time increased about 2%-4% each time the lemon was present and decreased between 1%-2% when the lemon was not present. Here is a video showing her first reaction to the lemon scent in phase 4 (part II) of the experiment….

Here is a chart showing Ella’s on task time for part II of the experiment phase 1 Lemon & No lemon

Average Percentage On Task Time

Lemon Scent

No Lemon Scent

E

E

Phase 4

15.50%

11.17%

Phase 5

15.95%

10.92%

Obviously the results from the past 4 days have shown a result similar to those found in the past 3 phases. We hope to repeat this result again in the fifth and last phase.

 

Graphs of Results November 13, 2008

Filed under: Experiment — ratssssss @ 1:55 am

When looking at the graphs, Ella’s data is shown in pink and Millie’s data is shown in yellow.

These graphs show the rats’ on task behavior during the learning of the contingencies required for the final task.

perf-curve-millie2

* Data from Day two was lost

perf-curve-ella

These graphs show the rats’ on task time during phases 1, 2, and 3 while the lemon stimulus was present.

ott-lemon-phase-millie

ott-lemon-phases-ella

These graphs show the comparison between the rat’s average on task time in lemon vs. non-lemon trials.

ott-l-v-nl-millie

ott-l-v-nl-ella

These graphs show the difference in change of average percentage on task time between the lemon and non-lemon trials.

change-ott-millie

change-ott-ella

 

Experiment progress & even more results November 11, 2008

Filed under: Experiment — ratssssss @ 1:14 am

During sessions 15 and 16 the lemon scent was still present, repsonse rates are as follows: 15 M: 13.72%, E: 13.22%, 16  M: 11.89%, E: 15.61%. Then the lemon scent was taken away for 2 days, the response rates are as follows: 17 E: 11.39%, M: 11.28%, 18 M: 10.89%, E: 16.78%.

Phase three of adding the lemon stimulus began during session 19 and continued to session 20, the response rates are as follows: 19 E: 17.67%, M: 17.67% (we are not sure why they are exactly the same but thats how it turned out) 20 E: 16.72%, M: 15.11%.

Phase three of no lemon stimulus has not been viewed yet, but we are excited to see the completed data set!

Here is a video of lemon phase three showing the rats responses….

Below is documentation showing the time spent training a recording data…

Learning Task

Lemon Scent Present

No Lemon Scent Present

Total

Hours Spent

Training & Recording Data

15 hours &

40 minutes

16 hours

12 hours

43 hours &

40 minutes

Session #’s

1-8

9-11, 14-16, 19-20

12-13, 17-18, 21-22

1-22

Below is documentation showing the averages of on task time for each phase…

Average Percentage On Task Time

Learning Task

Lemon Scent

No Lemon Scent

M

E

M

E

M

E

Phase 1

18.08%*

16.52%*

13.67%

12.78%

11.78%

12.95%

Phase 2

13.70%

15.81%

11.09%

14.09%

Phase 3

16.39%

17.20%

11.42%

13.59%

* Learning Task only had one phase

 

Experiment Progress….and some results! November 6, 2008

Filed under: Experiment — ratssssss @ 3:53 am

Beginning in session 9 of our experiment, the lemon essential oil stimulus was added to the experiment box and results were observed. The scent was diffused into the box using equal sized pieces of paper towels (shown in video). In order to keep the scent from remaining on the wooden sides of the box during “non lemon” trials, plastic was placed underneath the paper towels where they laid against the box (also shown in video). Additionally, after each session was over the paper towels were removed to eliminate the smell from the box and the room. Sessions 9, 10, and 11 were phase one of “lemon sessions.” Results for on task time percentages were as follows:

Session 9: M: 12.67%, E: 10.67%, Session 10: M: 15.5%, E: 13.94%, Session 11: M:12.83%, E: 13.82%

The rats seemed to be somewhat distracted by the novel stimulus of scent. Their behavior on these three days included standing up on their back legs and sniffing the air. Because of the distraction caused by the novel scent stimulus, we decided to run 2 additional phases of “lemon trials.” These standing and sniffing behaviors are shown in the video found below.

After the first lemon phase was over new unscented paper towels were placed in the box to maintain a consistent performance environment. Upon removing the lemon scent following lemon phase 1, the rats on task behavior remained lower-average ranging from about 11% to 14% on task. Note–this was not a significant decrease in behavior from the previous 3 days with lemon.

After 2 days without lemon (decided randomly so the rats would not respond to any pattern), lemon phase 2 began. This would serve to eliminate any novel stimulus effect as the rats would have already been exposed to the scent several times before. So far, the rats’ on task behavior has shown an increase during lemon phase 2. This behavior is shown in the video below. Actual results for on task time were as follows:

Session 14: E: 18.61% M: 15.5%, Session 15: tbd, Session 16: tbd

Watch the video!

 

Experiment Details Continued October 30, 2008

Filed under: Experiment — ratssssss @ 1:50 am

During session 3 for the first 10 minutes the rats were required to continue contingency 3 which was placing their paws or nose inside the hoop. After 10 minutes the contingency changed to placing their paws and nose inside of the hoop. This was known as contingency 4 which lasted for the remaining 20 minutes of session 3. The results from session 3 are as follows: (M: 11.67%, E: 14.67% time on task).

During session 4 the rats were required to continue contingency 4 for the first 10 minutes. The remaining 20 minutes were spent conditioning contingency 5 or placing all 4 paws inside the hoop. The results for session 4 are as follows: (E: 6.94%, M: 10.17% time on task).  As you can see Ella was having an off day and exhibiting very eratic behavior.

During session 5 the rats continued contingency 5 for the first 10 minutes. The remaining 20 minutes were spent conditioning contingency 6 which was staying in the hoop for 1 second. The results for session 5 are as follows: (E: 14.56%, M: 4.50% on task time). As you can see Millie had her off day exhibiting a lot of eratic distractive behaviors (mostly jumping out of the box).

During sessions 6, 7, and 8 contingency 6 was practiced to get them to their basline for performance of the task. By this point the task was completely learned and their would only be changes in focus time rather than learning or ability. During this time the rats percentages of on task time were very consistent falling between 13% – 22%. The results for sessions 6 are as follows: (E: 16.72%, M: 13.56%), Session 7: (M: 18.61%, E: 17.39%), and Session 8: (E: 15.44%, M: 22.06%).

In the following 2 or 3 days the lemon scent will be added to observe any differences in attention and focus through percentages of on task time. The lemon scent will then be taken away and the behavior will be observed for a final 2-3 days without presence of a sensory stimulus.

Below is a video showing contingencies 4-6 (the completed task BEFORE the scent is added):

 

Experiment Details October 22, 2008

Filed under: Experiment — ratssssss @ 2:14 am

We are asking the question of whether lemon essential oil will increase the focus and attention of rats. We are testing this hypothesis by teaching our rats to perform a simple task of stepping/sitting inside a white hoop in the middle of a wooden box. The rats have obtain a certain percentage of on task behavior before the lemon essential oil scent is added. Once added we expect to see a significant increase in the percentage of time spent on task. The scent will be present for 3 days and then removed. After the removal of the scent the rats will be tested on the task to make sure their performance is not a result of further learning.

The rats are fed 24 hours before training to ensure that they have been deprived of food for a sufficient amount of time. Each session, we flip a coin to randomly decide which rat will train first. Each rat is trained for 30 minutes and all 30 minutes are videotaped for further reference.

We set up specific steps in contingencies before hand. During session one, the first 5.5 minutes, the contingency was for the rats to approach the hoop with their nose. After 5.5 minutes had passed, the contingency was changed so that they had to place their nose or front paws on the hoop. The remaining 14.5 minutes were spent improving this task.

After the session, we looked at the video footage and both used stop watches to determine the amount of time not spent on task. We did this by starting the clock as soon as the rat entered the box. When the rat performed the contingent behavior, the clock was stopped. It was started again when they a) walked away or b) reached the “food corner.” Afterwards, we averaged our recorded off task times for a final off task time (M: 17.81 min., E: 17.31 min.) We subtracted this number from the total session time to find the on task time (M: 2.19, E: 2.69). Last, we found the percentage of time spent on task (M: 10.95%, E: 13.45%). We will record differences in this percentage over time.

During session 2, the same procedure was used. The first 10 minutes were used to practice the last contingency from the night before. The remaining 20 minutes, the contingency was changed again–the rats now had to place their front paws or nose inside the circle (on the wood). Data: (On task time: M: , E: 3.88 min)(Off task time, M: , E: 26.12 min)(% time on task: M: , E: 12.93% )

WATCH THE VIDEO!!!!